Biology Undergraduate Course Listing 

LEC = Lecture Instructor; LAB = Lab Instructor; COR = Coordinator; ADM = Administrator

Note: Subject to change. Please refer to the University Timetable for confirmation of fall/winter offerings listed below.

BIOL 102 / 3.0
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Introductory Biology of Cells

An introduction to the basic themes and concepts of modern biology spanning organizational levels from molecules to cells in an evolutionary context.
NOTE    Also offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies. Learning Hours may vary.
NOTE    Also offered at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS    111 (24L;6Lb;9G;12O;60P)
RECOMMENDATION    4U Biology and Chemistry, or equivalent high school background, are highly recommended.

 

Summer 2016 K. Ko (LEC)
Fall 2016 C. Moyes (LEC) W. Snedden (LEC) R. Snetsinger (LAB)
Winter 2017 (online) K. Ko (LEC)
BIOL 103 / 3.0
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Introductory Biology of Organisms

An introduction to the basic themes and concepts of modern biology spanning organizational levels from organisms to ecosystems in an evolutionary context.
NOTE    Also offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies. Learning Hours may vary.
NOTE    Also offered at the Bader International Study Centre, Herstmonceux. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS    123 (36L;24Lb;24O;39P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 102/3.0.

Summer 2016 (online) C. Moyes (Lec) A. Chippindale (Lec)
Fall 2016 (online) C. Moyes (Lec) A. Chippindale (Lec)
Winter 2017 A. Chippindale (Lec) V. Walker (Lec) R. Snetsinger (Lab)
BIOL 110 / 3.0
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Human Genetics and Evolution

Introductory genetics and evolutionary processes as they relate to the human condition - genetic diseases, medical techniques, inheritance and ethical issues such as cloning and genetically modified foods.
NOTE  Also offered online.  Consult Continuing and Distance Studies.  Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS  118 (26L;10T;10G;36O;36P)
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION  May not be taken with or after BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0

Fall 2016 (ONLINE) T. Birt
Winter 2017 S. Yates
BIOL 111 / 3.0
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Ecology and the Environment

Introduces the basic concepts of ecology and shows how they relate to environmental issues such as population growth, resource management, biodiversity, agriculture, air and water pollution, energy, and climate change, and to solutions leading to a sustainable environment.
NOTE    Also offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies.
LEARNING HOURS    108 (36L;72P)
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION    May not be taken with or after BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0.

Summer 2016 L. Nagel
Winter 2017 P. Boag
BIOL 201 / 3.0
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Diversity of Life I

A survey of bacteria, algae, fungi and plants, their internal organization and their relationships to their environment. Organismal biology is discussed in a phylogenetic context and the evolution of organizational complexity and the relations between structure and function are stressed.
LEARNING HOURS    117 (36L;33Lb;48P)

Fall 2016 S. Arnott (Lec) L. Aarssen (Lec) D. Kristensen (Lab)
BIOL 202 / 3.0
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Diversity of Life II

A survey of animals, their internal organization and their relationships to their environment. Organismal biology is discussed in a phylogenetic context and the evolution of organizational complexity and the relations between structure and function are stressed.
LEARNING HOURS    117 (36L;33Lb;48P)

Winter 2017 Wm. Nelson (Lec) L. Ratcliffe (Lec) B. Vanderbeld (Lab)
BIOL 205 / 3.0
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Mendelian and Molecular Genetics

An introduction to Mendelian and molecular genetics covering the basic mechanisms of genetic transmission, gene structure and function, as well as the application of molecular genetics in medicine and biotechnology.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;36Lb;12O;36P)
PREREQUISITE    A GPA of 1.90 in BIOL 102/3.0 and BIOL 103/3.0.

 

Fall 2016 I. Chin-Sang (Lec) F. Gauthier (Lab)
Summer 2016 I. Chin-Sang
BIOL 206 / 3.0
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Evolutionary Genetics
An introduction to the genetic mechanisms of population differentiation and evolutionary change - from molecules to species. The genetical theory of evolution is also applied to problems involving conservation, biotechnology and the evolution of disease.
NOTE Priority to BIOL concentrators will be given during course selection.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;36Lb;12O;36P)
RECOMMENDATION BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0.
PREREQUISITE BIOL 205/3.0.
Winter 2017 C. Eckert (Lec) F. Gauthier (Lab)
BIOL 243 / 3.0
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Statistics for Biologists

From the formulation of interesting questions, through the design of experiments and statistical analysis, to final publication of results in papers and reports. Emphasis is on the foundation of statistical inference, and the application of statistical methods using statistical software.
NOTE    Enrolment is limited. Priority will be given to students registered in BIOL Major (Science); BIOL, BIMA, BIPS, EBIO Specialization (Science) Plans.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;12T;72P)
RECOMMENDATION    12U Functions and 12 U Calculus or equivalent high school background or MATH P06/3.0 is highly recommended.
EXCLUSION    No more than 3.0 units from BIOL 243/3.0; CHEE 209/3.0; ECON 250/3.0; GPHY 247/3.0; KNPE 251/3.0 (formerly PHED 251/3.0); NURS 323/3.0; POLS 385/3.0; PSYC 202/3.0; SOCY 211/3.0; STAT 263/3.0; STAT 267/3.0; STAT 367/3.0; COMM 162/3.0.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION    May not be taken with or after STAT 269/3.0.

Fall 2016 Wm. Nelson
BIOL 302 / 3.0
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Population and Evolutionary Ecology

Introductory ecology dealing with population growth and regulation, species interactions and reproductive and life history strategies. Laboratory work includes field studies as well as individual and group projects.
NOTE    Field trip: estimated cost $85.
LEARNING HOURS    118 (36L;27Lb;12O;19Oc;24P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0 and BIOL 206/3.0
COREQUISITE    BIOL 243/3.0 or PSYC 202/3.0 or STAT 269/3.0.

 

Fall 2016 F. Bonier (Lec) R. Colautti (Lec) L. Nagel (Lab)
BIOL 303 / 3.0
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Community and Ecosystem Ecology
An introduction to the major ecological concepts at the community and ecosystem scales. Patterns and mechanismsunderlying: community structure; biogeographic patterns; element cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.Environmental problems are assessed in terms of ecological principles. Laboratory work includes field studies as well asindividual and group projects.
NOTE Field trip: estimated cost $20.
LEARNING HOURS 127 (36L;36Lb;55P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0 and BIOL 206/3.0 and (BIOL 243/3.0 or PSYC 202/3.0 or STAT 269/3.0

 

Winter 2017 P. Grogan (Lec) L. Nagel (Lab)
BIOL 307 / 3.0
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Field Biology I

Two weeks of field work plus written assignments in one or two areas of study to be done when specialized modules are available in May, July, August or February. Studies may include ecology of birds, fish, insects, small mammals, plants, tundra and taiga, lakes and caves.
NOTE    Field trip: estimated cost of each module and the schedule of offerings for each year are available in January.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0. Prior to registering in the course students must complete the application process, be placed in a module and complete the field work.

 

Fall / Winter / Summer S. Arnott (Cor) L. Nagel (Adm)
BIOL 308 / 1.5
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Field Studies in Biology I

One week of field work plus written assignments in one or two areas of study to be done when specialized modules are available in May, July, August or February. Studies may include ecology of birds, fish, insects, small mammals, plants, tundra and taiga, lakes and caves.
NOTE    Field trip: estimated cost of each module and the schedule of offerings for each year are available in January.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0. Prior to registering in the course students must complete the application process, be placed in a module and complete the field work.

Fall / Winter / Summer S. Arnott (Cor) L. Nagel (Adm)
BIOL 315 / 3.0
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Plants and Human Culture
Human civilization depends on plants. We have changed them and they have changed us. This course investigates the biology and evolution of valuable economic plants, the science of plant domestication and genetic manipulation, and how our interactions with plants have altered the economy, politics, and sociology of human civilization.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;24O;60P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 102/3.0 and BIOL 103/3.0 and BIOL 201/3.0.
NOT OFFERED
BIOL 316 / 3.0
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Fisheries Biology

An introduction to the basic principles of fisheries biology and examination of the biological foundations of current problems affecting the world’s fisheries, with an emphasis on developing sound science-based strategies to resolve these problems.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;84P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 103/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0.

Winter 2017 B. Tufts
BIOL 317 / 3.0
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Field Biology II

Two weeks of field work plus written assignments in one or two areas of study to be done when specialized modules are available in May, July, August or February. Studies may include ecology of birds, fish, insects, small mammals, plants, tundra and taiga, lakes and caves.
NOTE    Field trip: estimated cost of each module and the schedule of offerings for each year are available in January.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 307/3.0. Prior to registering in the course students must complete the application process, be placed in a module and complete the field work.

Fall / Winter / Summer S. Arnott (Cor) L. Nagel (Adm)
BIOL 319 / 3.0
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Introduction to Ethnobotany

Ethnobotany is the study of the relationships that exist between indigenous cultures and local flora. Case studies will be presented to examine the various categories of plant use, the importance of traditional knowledge to Western culture, and the role of plant conservation and cultural sustainability.
NOTE    Only offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 102/3.0 and BIOL 103/3.0.
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 201/3.0.

TBA (ONLINE) TBA
BIOL 321 / 3.0
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Animal Behaviour

An evolutionary approach to the study of animal behaviour. This course explores processes and patterns in behaviour, with emphasis on perception, communication, foraging, spacing, reproduction and social behaviour in a variety of animals. Methods of studying and analyzing behaviour are explored through laboratory exercises.
NOTE    Also offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS    132 (36L;12T;12I;12O;24Oc;36P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 202/3.0.
COREQUISITE    6.0 units in BIOL at the 200-level or above.

Summer 2015 L. Nagel
Fall 2016 L. Ratcliffe
BIOL 322 / 3.0
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Environmental Physiology of Animals

 

A comparative examination of interaction between animals and their environment including: physiological adaptations to extreme environments (e.g., arctic, desert); responses to acute and chronic environmental stress (e.g., hypoxia, temperature); environmental regulation of normal physiological processes; uses of comparative models in other fields.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;24O;60P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 339/3.0.

 

 

 

Winter 2017 Y. Wang
BIOL 323 / 3.0
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Vertebrate Diversity and Evolution

Vertebrate biodiversity including characteristics and adaptations of the major classes of the living vertebrates; major environmental and geological changes associated with vertebrate evolution.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;12Lb;72P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0 and BIOL 206/3.0.

Not Offered
BIOL 327 / 3.0
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Field Biology III

Two weeks of field work plus written assignments in one or two areas of study to be done when specialized modules are available in May, July, August or February. Studies may include ecology of birds, fish, insects, small mammals, plants, tundra and taiga, lakes and caves.
NOTE    Field trip: estimated cost of each module and the schedule of offerings for each year are available in January.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 307/3.0 and BIOL 317/3.0. Prior to registering in the course students must complete the application process, be placed in a module and complete the field work.

Fall / Winter / Summer S. Arnott (Cor) L. Nagel (Adm)
BIOL 330 / 3.0
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Cell Biology
An introduction to the cellular basis of biological variation. The course explores the control of cell function exerted by the nucleus, the pathways for building and fuelling cells, and the control of integrative cellular events.
NOTE Also offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12T;24O;48P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 205/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0.
Fall 2016 S. Regan
Summer 2016 (online) S. Regan
BIOL 331 / 3.0
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Analytical Genomics
This course will explore the structure of genomes and the nature and origin of gene families as well as large scale functional genomics methods for analysis of novel gene function.
   LEARNING HOURS 124 (36L;12T;40O;36P)
   PREREQUISITE  BIOL 205/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0.
Winter 2017 P. Young
BIOL 333 / 3.0
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Applied Biology

The course explores biological contributions to society in the fields of environmental assessment and management, materials and food production, and biotechnology. Emphasis is placed on understanding of applied processes in relevant service and production industries.
LEARNING HOURS    108 (36L;12T;60P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 205/3.0.

NOT OFFERED D. Lefebvre
BIOL 334 / 3.0
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Comparative Biochemistry
A survey of selected topics including: general principles of enzymology; bioenergetics; metabolism and its control; the importance of proteomic and enzyme research in functional genomics and biotechnology; mechanisms whereby animals and plants acclimate at the biochemical level to environmental stress.
NOTE Preference will be given to students registered in a Biology degree program or who require this course for their program.
LEARNING HOURS 110.4 (36L;24O;50.4)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 103/3.0 and CHEM 112/6.0 and (BIOL 205/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0). 
Fall 2016 Wm. Plaxton
BIOL 335 / 3.0
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Limnology and Aquatic Ecology

Physics, chemistry and biology of freshwater lakes. Emphasis on: morphometry; light and temperature; water chemistry in relation to nutrients; physiological requirements; composition and interaction of algal and invertebrate populations; eutrophication; pollution; environmental change.
NOTE    Field trip: estimated cost $35.
LEARNING HOURS    113 (36L;18Lb;8Oc;51P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 201/3.0 and BIOL 202/3.0 are recommended.
PREREQUISITE    CHEM 112/6.0

Fall 2016 B. Cumming
BIOL 339 / 3.0
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Animal Physiology
Focus is placed on adaptive physiology and integrative function (nervous and hormonal, movement, excretion, circulation and digestion) with examples selected from various phylogenetic levels as appropriate.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;18O;66P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 205/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0.
Fall 2016 C. Moyes R.M. Robertson
BIOL 341 / 3.0
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Plant Physiology
The course examines various aspects of plant cell biology, physiology, and biochemistry including carbon and nitrogen metabolism (photosynthesis, respiration, etc.), water relations, mineral nutrition, response to environmental stress, roles ofplant hormones, plant biotechnology.
LEARNING HOURS 115 (36L;10G;15O;54P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 205/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0
Winter 2017 K. Ko Wm. Plaxton
BIOL 343 / 3.0
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Data Analysis for Biologists
Advanced topics in using R for data management, exploratory data analysis, data visualization, and statistical analysis using the general linear model, with particular focus on statistical literacy and biological examples from both laboratory and field research.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;12T;12O;60P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 243/3.0 or PSYC 202/3.0 or STAT 269/3.0.
Winter 2017 C. Eckert
BIOL 350 / 3.0
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Evolution and Human Affairs
An exploration of how evolutionary thinking can affect our understanding of our lives, our species, and our ability to share the planet with other species.
NOTE Also offered online. Consult Continuing and Distance Studies. Learning Hours may vary.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36L;24O;60P)
PREREQUISITE Level 3 or above.
Fall 2016 L. Aarssen
Winter 2017 (ONLINE) L. Aarssen
BIOL 360 / 3.0
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Biotechnology and Society

The contributions and effects of biotechnology on humanity will be explored from the perspective of their impacts on society including moral and ethical issues. Biotechnological contributions to society to be explored will include those in medicine, industry, and agriculture.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;12T;72P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 205/3.0
EXCLUSION    No more than 3.0 units from BIOL 360; BIOL 507/3.0.

Fall 2016 D. Lefebvre
BIOL 369 / 3.0
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Sex and Evolution

Why sex? The evolutionary origins and consequences of sex and sexual reproduction. Topics include costs and benefits of sexual reproduction, the evolution and coevolution of sexes, gametes and genitalia, mating systems, gender differences and sex determination throughout the biotic world.
LEARNING HOURS    122 (36L;8T;18O;60P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 206/3.0.
PREREQUISITE    (BIOL 102/3.0 and BIOL 103/3.0) and 3.0 units from BIOL at the 200-level.
EQUIVALENCY    BIOL 210/3.0.

 

Fall 2016 A. Chippindale
BIOL 401 / 3.0
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Experimental Approaches to Animal Physiology
Laboratory -based course emphasizing experimental approaches to underst
anding the principles of animal physiology covered in BIOL 339/3.0.
LEARNING HOURS 108 (36Lb;12T;60P)
PREREQUISITE A minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List.
COREQUISITE BIOL 339/3.0.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

 

FALL 2016 Y. Wang (Lec) B. Vanderbeld (Lab)
BIOL 402 / 3.0
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Experiments in Plant Physiology
Laboratory-based course emphasizing experimental approaches to understanding the principles of plant physiology covered in BIOL 341/3.0.
LEARNING HOURS 114 (36Lb;24T;6O;48P)
PREREQUISITE A minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List.
COREQUISITE BIOL 341/3.0.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Winter 2017 K. Ko (Lec) B. Vanderbeld (Lab)
BIOL 403 / 3.0
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Frontiers in Cell and Molecular Physiology
A hands-on survey of selected experimental approaches to studying cell biology and molecular physiology.
NOTE Lab manual: estimated cost $25.
LEARNING HOURS  120 (36Lb;12T;72Oc)
PREREQUISITE A minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List.
COREQUISITE (BIOL 330/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0 or MBIO 218/3.0) and (BIOL 334/3.0 or BIOL 339/3.0 or BIOL 341/3.0)

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Winter 2017 L. Seroude
BIOL 404 / 3.0
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Techniques in Molecular Biology

Intensive laboratory work (8h/day) to be carried out over two and a half weeks in May. Practical work includes DNA isolations, DNA cloning, PCR, production of proteins, biochemical and immunological analysis of proteins.
NOTE    Priority to students registered in BIOL Major and Specialization degree Plans. See course website for details.
LEARNING HOURS    112.5 (100Lb;12.5P)
PREREQUISITE    BCHM 218/3.0 or MBIO 218/3.0 or BIOL 330/3.0.

Summer 2016 L. Seroude
BIOL 409 / 3.0
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Bioremediation

The use of living organisms to address environmental problems. Topics include mechanisms of contaminant extraction, absorption, concentration, and degradation using bacteria and plants to detoxify organic compounds, sequester heavy metals or clean up excess nutrients.
LEARNING HOURS    109.2 (36L;12T;6Oc;55.2P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 322/3.0 or BIOL 339/3.0 or BIOL 341/3.0.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 330/3.0.

 

Not Offered
BIOL 410 / 3.0
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Ecology of Lakes and Streams

An in-depth look at the ecology and evolution of freshwater aquatic ecosystems, considering the role of populations, interspecific interactions, and the flow of energy and matter. There will be an emphasis on linking ecological theory with empirical evidence from aquatic systems. Topics will include dispersal and colonization, ecological genetics, resource competition, predator-prey interaction, evolution of life-history strategies, habitat coupling, and biogeochemical cycling.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (24L;12S;84P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 335/3.0.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0.

Not Offered
BIOL 416 / 3.0
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Terrestrial Ecosystems
Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology: soils; plant -soil interactions; energy and water balance; carbon and nutrient cycling; species effects; landscape -level and whole earth biogeochemistry; global change.
NOTE Overnight field trip: estimated cost $50.
LEARNING HOURS 124 (12L,24S;18Lb;12Pc;12G;12O;16Oc;18P)
PREREQUISITE (BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0 or GPHY 317/3.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the
Biological Foundations List.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION May not be taken with or after BIOL 510/3.0

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

FALL 2016 P. Grogan
BIOL 421 / 3.0
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Conservation Genetics

This course will explore genetic aspects of conservation, addressing questions such as: How is genetic variation lost? Can loss of genetic variation result in extinction? How much genetic variation is 'enough' for population viability? Can loss of genetic variation be prevented? How do we define management units for conservation? And is hybridization a problem or a benefit for conservation?
LEARNING HOURS    120 (24L;24T;72P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 243/3.0 or PSYC 202/3.0 or STAT 263/3.0 or STAT 269/3.0.
COREQUISITE    BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0.
EQUIVALENCY    BIOL 310/3.0.

Not Offered
BIOL 422 / 3.0
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Conservation Biology
The application of biological research to the conservation of biodiversity and natural reso
urces, as well as the interaction of biology with philosophy, politics and economics in influencing conservation policy.
LEARNING HOURS  108 (36L;36T;36P)
PREREQUISITE (BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List. 

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Winter 2017 V. Friesen
BIOL 423 / 3.0
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Modern Insect Science

An exploration into the world of insects, one of the most abundantly successful group of organisms on the earth.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (12L;36T;72P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 330/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0 or MBIO 218/3.0.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION    May not be taken with or after BIOL 507/3.0.
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 205/3.0.

Not Offered
BIOL 430 / 3.0
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Molecular Genetics of Development

The use of genetic analysis to understand developmental processes such as cell fate determination, pattern formation and morphogenesis. Emphasis will be on the molecular pathways used during embryonic development, highlighting applications and techniques using model organisms.
LEARNING HOURS    126 (36L;18S;24G;12I;12O;24P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 330/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0 or MBIO 218/3.0.

NOT OFFERED
BIOL 431 / 3.0
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Cellular Basis of Adaptation
The cellular origins of diversity in physiological processes, with consideration of the role of evolutionary, developmental and molecular mechanisms.
LEARNING HOURS  108 (6L;30S;8T;4G;60P)
PREREQUISITE (BIOL 330/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0) and (one of BIOL 301/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 338/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List. 

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

WINTER 2017 P. Young
BIOL 433 / 3.0
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History and Philosophy of Biology

An examination of the foundations of evolution, classification and other selected topics from historical, philosophical and scientific perspectives.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36L;24T;60P)
PREREQUISITE    BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0.

BIOL 439 / 3.0
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Natural Selection and Microevolution
The mechanisms of evolutionary change - from genes to societies. How natural selection interacts with genetic and population processes to make organisms adapted to their environment and to create biological diversity.
LEARNING HOURS  120 (36L;6S;18Lb;60P)
PREREQUISITE (BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List. 

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

WINTER 2017 P. Boag
BIOL 440 / 3.0
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Speciation and Macroevolution
An exploration of higher -level processes in evolution spanning considerations of mechanisms of speciation, extinction, adaptive radiation, and phylogenetics.
LEARNING HOURS  120 (24L;24T;60G;12O)
PREREQUISITE (BIOL 302/3.0 or BIOL 303/3.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List. 

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

FALL 2016 S. Lougheed
BIOL 441 / 3.0
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Molecular Genetics
Research in eukaryotic molecular genetics with an emphasis on epigenetics. Epigenetic
phenomena will be examined in a range of models from single -celled organisms to metazoans, with student discussions on topics as diverse as bioethics, disease controls, and eugenics.
LEARNING HOURS 125 (30L;8S;12Lb;10G;65P)
PREREQUISITE (BCHM 218/3.0 or BIOL 330/3.0 or MBIO 218/3.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the
Biological Foundations List.
EXCLUSION No more than 3.0 credits from BIOL 441/3.0; PATH 425/3.0

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

WINTER 2017 Wm. Bendena V. Walker
BIOL 442 / 3.0
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Evolutionary Medicine
An exploration of human disease, illness, and injury, and the symptoms and treatments of medical conditions, with an evolutionary framework.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;20T;10O;66P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 206/3.0 and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List.
EQUIVALENCY BIOL 522/3.0.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Fall 2016 P. Boag
BIOL 442 / 3.0
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Evolutionary Medicine
An exploration of human disease, illness, and injury, and the symptoms and treatments of medical conditions, with an evolutionary framework.
LEARNING HOURS 120 (24L;20T;10O;66P)
PREREQUISITE BIOL 206/3.0 and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List.
EQUIVALENCY BIOL 522/3.0.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Winter 2017 F. Bonier
BIOL 445 / 3.0
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Neuroethology
The current status of research in the study of the neural control of the natural behaviour
of animals. Topics include the detection and coding of information in the environment, the integration of this information in the process of decision - making, the generation of the motor patterns that underlie behaviour, and general constraints on form and function of neural circuits.
LEARNING HOURS 126 (36L;18T;24O;48P)
PREREQUISITE (BIOL 339/3.0 or PHGY 214/6.0) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Winter 2017 R.M. Robertson
BIOL 501 / 3.0
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Seminar-Recent Research in Molecular Biology

Molecular biology is the area of biology that analyzes biological phenomena at the molecular level. Molecular Biology overlaps with Genetics, Biochemistry and Cell Biology to ultimately establish unambiguously the causal relationship between genetic information and biological outcomes. The course will focus on how molecular biology is used in basic and medical research to dissect the mechanisms involved in a large variety of biological problems. Students in the course will explore molecular literature and techniques that are relevant to their interest through seminar presentations, writing critiques, scientific reviews.  The schedule and evaluation of the course will be finalized after consultation with the students.   
RECOMMENDATION  BIOL 430.   
PREREQUISITE    Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List or permission of the Department.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36S;84P)

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0



 

Winter 2017 Wm. Bendena
BIOL 502 / 3.0
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Seminar - Plant Cellular Responses to Environmental Stress

Literally rooted in place, plants have adapted robust ways to survive in a changing environment. This course will dissect signal transduction pathways and other molecular responses that are activated in plant cells exposed to environmental stresses such as pathogen infection, drought, or temperature fluctuations. Students will explore and critically evaluate current literature in plant molecular biology and genetics. Emphasis will be placed on understanding techniques used to investigate changes in gene expression, protein-protein interactions, sub-cellular localization, as well as the analysis of mutant and transgenic plant lines.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (36S;84P)
PREREQUISITE    Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List  and (BIOL 330/3.0 or BIOL 334/3.0 or BIOL 341/3.0 or BIOL 430/3.0) or permission of the Department.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

 

Winter 2017 J. Monaghan
BIOL 503 / 3.0
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Seminar - Plant Biotechnology

This is an experiential course on the business of science.  The focus of the course is to look at the issues behind plant biotechnology and the steps leading to the commercialization of a transgenic (or non-transgenic) plant/product.  The commercialization process will be covered through a series of workshops.  Students will go through the process of developing their own ideas into a commercially valuable product, plus an assessment of all related social and economic issues using business-oriented exercises.   
LEARNING HOURS 120 (15L;9S;24G;72P)
PREREQUISITE Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List and [(BIOL 205/3.0 or BCHM 218/3.0) and BIOL 341/3.0] or permission of the Department.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Fall 2016 K. Ko
BIOL 506 / 3.0
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Seminar - Biochemical Adaptations to Life Under Extreme Conditions

Life on earth has radiated to exploit virtually every conceivable habitat and lifestyle.  Biochemical adaptation is a fundamental aspect of biological diversity because it integrates molecular structure, with metabolic function and control.  The purpose of the course is to evaluate the impressive array of mechanisms whereby animals, plants, and microbes acclimate at the biochemical level to 'extreme' environmental conditions such as temperature stress, high pressure, lack of oxygen, salt stress, oxidative stress, and desiccation.  Students are expected to read and to lead discussion on original research publications, and to develop a general literature review and research proposal on a relevant topic that will be presented in a seminar and submitted as a written report.  

Course Goals and Objectives

  • To understand the diversity and scope of biochemical adaptations of species to environmental extremes (and practical applications of this research area for helping humanity & our planet)
  • To develop the ability to critically analyze and synthesize science literature
  • To improve oral and written communication skills

    RECOMMENDED  BIOL 341 and BIOL 322   PREREQUISITE  BIOL 334 or (BCHM 315 and BCHM 316) or BCHM 310
NOT OFFERED
BIOL 507 / 3.0
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Seminar - Biotechnology
LEARNING HOURS 120 (36S;84P)
PREREQUISITE Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List or permission of the Department.
EXCLUSION No more than 3.0 units from BIOL 360/3.0; BIOL 507/3.0.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION May not be taken with or after BIOL 441/3.0

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

NOT OFFERED
BIOL 508 / 3.0
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Seminar - Biology of the Cell Cycle

LEARNING HOURS    120 (36S;84P)

PREREQUISITE    BIOL 330/3.0 or BCHM 218 or MBIO 218/3.0.

Not Offered
BIOL 509 / 3.0
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Seminar - Limnological Environmental Studies

This course will explore ecological and evolutionary aspects of species invasions, with an emphasis on aquatic invaders.  Course discussions will include such questions as:  What is an invasive species?  What factors influence the i) arrival of invaders to new regions, ii) their establishment success, and iii) their spread within the newly established region.  Can we predict potential invasive species?  How do we detect invaders?   What impact do invaders have on resident communities?  Is there evidence for local adaptation of resident species and/or invaders once an invasive species has established?  How do other stressors influence the impact of invasive species on communities and ecosystems?  Are there management strategies that can be employed to reduce the arrival, establishment, and spread of invasive species? 
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 335/3.0.
PREREQUISITE    Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List or permission of the Department.
LEARNING HOURS    120 (9L;9S;18G;84P)

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

FALL 2016 S. Arnott
BIOL 510 / 3.0
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Seminar - Biogeochemistry and Global Change

This ecology course will introduce students to the biogeochemical aspects of a wide range of global change issues.  Emphasis will be on interactive discussions and student-led seminars in which participants will have ample opportunities to explore, analyze and synthesize scientific information, to learn how the scientific process works, and to develop their understanding of global change issues.
PREREQUISITES BIOL302 and 303 strongly recommended.

Winter 2016 P. Grogan
BIOL 515 / 3.0
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Seminar - Aquaculture

LEARNING HOURS  120 (9L;9S;18G;84P)

Not Offered
BIOL 527 / 3.0
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Seminar - Paleolimnology and Global Environmental Change


The main aim of this course is to provide students with a background in studies of long-term environmental change, with a focus on research that is especially relevant to today's environmental problems. Key topics include:  climatic change, lake pollution, atmospheric deposition of contaminants and related topics. Lake sediment analyses will be highlighted, but other approaches (such as ice cores, tree rings, corals) will also be explored.   
LEARNING HOURS   132 (21L;15S;96P)
RECOMMENDATION    BIOL 335/3.0.
PREREQUISITE    Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List or permission of the Department.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Winter 2017 J. Smol
BIOL 530 / 3.0
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530 / 3.0 Seminar - Origins of Biodiversity

LEARNING HOURS   120 (9L;9S;18G;84P

Not Offered
BIOL 532 / 3.0
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Seminar - Selected Topics in Biology I - Era of Big Data

 
The sequencing of the human genome encompassed one the largest biological data generation efforts of the previous millennium. Today, we generate hundreds of human-genome equivalents of biological data every day. This course will examine the technologies, applications, and challenges driving this revolution of big data. The focus will be on research efforts facilitated by nextgen sequencing (NGS), the technology underlying the bulk of big data. Creative applications of NGS (i.e. methods ending in "-Seq") have enabled systematic global measurements of virtually any cellular process involving nucleic acids. The major categories and high-impact examples of "-Seq" applications in research and human medicine, as well as the challenges highlighted by controversial publications will be covered. The purpose of the course is to understand the advantages and pitfalls of scientific discovery gained from generating, mining, and integrating large datasets, which is becoming a broadly utilized approach in biology research. 
LEARNING HOURS    120 (9L;9S;18G;84P)
RECOMMENDED  BIOL 331 
Prerequisite   Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List or permission of the Department and BIOL 205

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

NOT OFFERED
BIOL 533 / 3.0
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Seminar - Selected Topics in Biology II - Extremophiles

The main aim of this course is to understand how organisms cope with extreme environments such as drought, high salt, low pH, and extreme temperatures.    True extremophiles live under constant conditions that are stressful to normal organisms.   The course will survey true extremophiles as well as organisms that have coping mechanisms for temporarily stressful conditions such as dehydration or temperature extremes.   
LEARNING HOURS    120 (9L;9S;18G;84P)
PREREQUISITE Level 4 and registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, BTEC-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List or permission of the Department and BIOL 339 or BIOL 341 or equivalent

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0


 

Fall 2016 D. Lefebvre
BIOL 537 / 12.0
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Research in Biology
Individual research projects under the supervision of a staff member; reported in the form of a thesis, poster and seminar.
LEARNING HOURS 444 (8L;36S;300Pc;100O)
NOTE In the spring preceding fourth year, students must select projects in consultation with potential supervisors.
Registration is subject to availability of a supervisor. Work on the project during summer is advantageous if field studies are required. See also the statement on BIOL 501/3.0-BIOL 536/3.0 in the BIOL Department Information, preliminary information section.
PREREQUISITE Admission to the final year of a BSCH program in Biology and a minimum GPA of 2.0 in the Biological Foundations List and permission of the project supervisor and course coordinator.

Biological Foundations List
BIOL 102/3.0; BIOL 103/3.0; BIOL 201/3.0; BIOL 202/3.0; BIOL 205/3.0; BIOL 206/3.0; BIOL 302/3.0; BIOL 303/3.0; BIOL 330/3.0; BIOL 334/3.0; BIOL 339/3.0; BIOL 341/3.0

Fall / Winter 2016-17 F. Bonier P. Grogan P. Young
BIOL 538 / 3.0
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Research Mentorship in Biology I

Research practicum under the supervision of a Biology faculty member. The course will involve a combination of research in the host laboratory, attendance of BIOL 537 or other seminars in the Department, and literature research to present as a major paper and seminar.
NOTE    Students will normally be enrolled in the fourth year of their Program, having completed the third year core requirements of their Plan.
LEARNING HOURS    128 (8S;12T;60Pc;48P)
PREREQUISITE    Registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and permission of the Department.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION    Not to be taken concurrently with BIOL 537.

BIOL 539 / 3.0
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Research Mentorship in Biology II

Research practicum under the supervision of a Biology faculty member. The course will involve a combination of research in the host laboratory, attendance of BIOL 537 or other seminars in the Department, and literature research to present as a major paper and seminar.
NOTE    Students will normally be enrolled in the fourth year of their Program, having completed the third year core requirements of their Plan.
LEARNING HOURS    128 (8S;12T;60Pc;48P)
PREREQUISITE    Registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and permission of the Department.
COREQUISITE    BIOL 538.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION    Not to be taken concurrently with BIOL 537.

BIOL 540 / 6.0
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Research Mentorship in Biology

Research practicum under the supervision of a Biology faculty member. The course will involve a combination of research in the host laboratory, attendance of BIOL 537 or other seminars in the Department, and literature research to present as a major paper and seminar.
NOTE    Students will normally be enrolled in the fourth year of their Program, having completed the third year core requirements of their Plan.
LEARNING HOURS    248 (8S;24T;120Pc;96P)
PREREQUISITE    Registration in a Biology Honours Plan (BIOL-M-BSH, BIOL-P-BSH, BIMA-P-BSH, BIPS-P-BSH, EBIO-P-BSH) and permission of the Department.
ONE-WAY EXCLUSION    Not to be taken concurrently with BIOL 537.

 

BIOL 541 / 12.0
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Research in Biotechnology

Individual research projects under the supervision of a staff member; reported in the form of a thesis, poster, and seminar.
NOTE    Students must select projects in consultation with potential supervisors a minimum of one full term in advance of starting the course.
LEARNING HOURS    446 (8L;18S;360Pc;60P)
PREREQUISITE    Admission to the final year of the BTEC program in Biology, and permission of the project supervisor and course coordinator.
EXCLUSION    No more than 1 course from BIOL 537/12.0 and BIOL 541/12.0.

 

I've spent more time than many will believe [making microscopic observations], but I've done them with joy, and I've taken no notice those who have said why take so much trouble and what good is it?

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

It's a parts list... If I gave you the parts list for the Boeing 777 and it had 100,000 parts, I don't think you could screw it together and you certainly wouldn't understand why it flew

Eric Lander

What is true for E. coli is also true for the elephant

Jacques Monod

The world becomes full of organisms that have what it takes to become ancestors. That, in a sentence, is Darwinism

Richard Dawkins

Shall we conjecture that one and the same kind of living filaments is and has been the cause of all organic life?

Erasmus Darwin

Nature proceeds little by little from things lifeless to animal life in such a way that it's impossible to determine the line of demarcation

Aristotle

Cells let us walk, talk, think, make love, and realize the bath water is cold

Lorraine Lee Cudmore

In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history

Charles Darwin

It is my belief that the basic knowledge that we're providing to the world will have a profound impact on the human condition and the treatments for disease and our view of our place on the biological continuum

J. Craig Venter

Imagine a house coming together spontaneously from all the information contained in the bricks: that is how animal bodies are made

Neil Shubin

A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die - which variety or species shall increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct

Charles Darwin

The stuff of life turned out to be not a quivering, glowing, wondrous gel but a contraption of tiny jigs, springs, hinges, rods, sheets, magnets, zippers, and trapdoors, assembled by a data tape whose information is copied, downloaded and scanned

Steven Pinker

We wish to discuss a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid. (D.N.A.). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biologic interest

Rosalind Franklin

We are biology. We are reminded of this at the beginning and the end, at birth and at death. In between we do what we can to forget

Mary Roach

The systems approach to biology will be the dominant theme in medicine

Leroy Hood

I've always been interested in animal behavior, and I keep reading about it because it's so surprising all the time - so many things are happening around us that we neglect to look at. Part of the passion I have for biology is based on this wonderment"

Isabella Rossellini

Because all of biology is connected, one can often make a breakthrough with an organism that exaggerates a particular phenomenon, and later explore the generality

Thomas Cech

Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution

Theodosius Dobzhansky

Biology is now bigger than physics, as measured by the size of budgets, by the size of the workforce, or by the output of major discoveries; and biology is likely to remain the biggest part of science through the twenty-first century

- Freeman Dyson

Nothing can be more incorrect than the assumption one sometimes meets with, that physics has one method, chemistry another, and biology a third

- Thomas Huxley