Selection for early flowering time in an annual plant (Yellow Rattle, Rhinanthus minor) occurs regardless of an elevational gradient in growing season length
Plant species that expand their geographic range typically adapt to new, local environmental factors via natural selection, becoming genetically and phenotypically differentiated from their source populations.
Latitude and elevation are common environmental gradients present in many species’ ranges. Phenological traits, such as flowering time, which rely on temperature and growing season length as biological cues, are predicted to undergo strong selection at either ends of their latitudinal or elevational range.
Selection on phenological traits should favour early-season emergence and rapid reproduction under shorter growing seasons (higher latitudes and elevations), versus later-season emergence and prolonged reproduction expected under longer growing seasons (lower latitudes and elevation). Few studies have investigated whether selection on phenology acts as expected along growing season gradients in natural habitats. However, previous results from these studies have found that selection consistently favours early flowering regardless of season length.
In a recently published paper, former Queen’s Biology PhD Student David Ensing, former MSc Student Dylan Sora, and Professor Dr. Christopher Eckert estimate phenotypic selection on naturally occurring and transplanted individuals of the montane annual plant, Rhinanthus minor, across a 1000 m elevational gradient of growing season length in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. They quantify phenotypic selection on five phenological traits over three consecutive generations to test the hypothesis that selection on these traits varies across a gradient of growing season length. They also address common limitations and biases that may contribute to findings of consistent selection on flowering time, which are contrary to general expectations.
Ensing et al. find that phenotypic selection does not act on most of the phenological traits measured (e.g., time between first flower and first mature fruit). However, selection favours early flowering time across the elevational gradient of growing season length, consistent with previous results. The authors conclude that general expectations of flowering time differentiation based on growing season length may not apply to elevational gradients, in comparison to latitudinal gradients. Determining how selection on phenology differs across elevational gradients can be used as a model for understanding how the force of natural selection might change with anthropogenic effects on the climate. By addressing common sources of bias associated with studies that find selection for early flowering (such as a lack of multiple generations, and missing phenotypic variation), the authors highlight new avenues for further research on the agents and targets of this apparent selection.
To learn more, read their article in Evolution.
Photo by Regan Cross.
Drivers of freshwater zooplankton communities
What factors determine the composition and abundance of freshwater communities? We know that smaller scale processes, such as soil or water chemistry, and broader scale processes, such as regional climate, are both important. However, few studies consider how the importance of these processes changes through time to impact the structure of communities.
In a recent study, former Queen’s Biology PhD student Dr. James Sinclair, Professor Dr. Shelley Arnott, Associate Professor Dr. Bill Nelson, and former BSc thesis student Kaitlyn Brougham compared environmental and spatial drivers of community composition across time using zooplankton from 29 lakes in southern Ontario surveyed over four years.
Sinclair et al. confirm that some local and regional-scale processes are consistent drivers of zooplankton communities, such as those that exhibit little to no inter-annual variation (like geomorphology). Conversely, other factors varied in their contributions over time, such as lake pH and nutrient concentrations. The researchers’ work demonstrates the importance of considering factors that vary on different scales of both time and space when determining drivers of aquatic invertebrate zooplankton composition. To learn more, read their article in the Journal of Biogeography.
Figure caption: A Daphnia pulicaria zooplankton. Photo by K. Brougham.
A NOVEL ALLELE of THE ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MACPF PROTEIN CAD1 RESULTS IN DEREGULATED IMMUNE SIGNALING
Pathogen detection and response are critical components of defense against disease in all organisms. The Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin Family (MACPF) of proteins play an important role in immune responses in eukaryotic cells. There are four MACPF proteins encoded in the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. One of these is known as Constitutively Active Defense 1 (CAD1), and although the molecular function of this protein family is unclear, there are some hints that MACPF proteins may be important for cellular and immune homeostasis.
In a recent study, former BSc thesis student Danalyn Holmes, with co-authors Dr. Melissa Bredow, Irina Sementchoukova, Sydney Pascetta, and Kristen Siegel, along with collaborators Dr. Kathrin Thor and Dr. Cyril Zipfel (The Sainsbury Laboratory Norwich), performed a forward-genetic screen that uncovered a novel allele in CAD1 that allowed a thorough genetic investigation into its role in immune signaling. Lead by Queen’s Biology Assistant Professor Dr. Jacqueline Monaghan, this work is an important contribution to our understanding of plant pathogen detection and response. To learn more, read their article in Genetics.
ANGLING SEASON CHANGES FOR BASS IN LAKE ONTARIO AND THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER
Largemouth and smallmouth bass are very popular species for North American anglers, and angling for bass in the Great Lakes region provides economic benefits for many communities. In 2013, a change was implemented regarding the angling season for largemouth and smallmouth bass in Southern Ontario, the start date for the season was advanced by one week, to the third Saturday in June. Concerns were raised on whether this change was appropriate for Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River, as these large waterbodies take longer to warm up than other smaller, inland lakes.
To investigate this potential issue, members of the Queen’s University Freshwater Fisheries Conservation Lab (Principle investigator Dr. Bruce Tufts, Dr. Daniel McCarthy, Serena Wong, Connor Elliott, Sean Bridgeman, Erich Nelson, Eric Taylor, Arthur Bonsall, and Randy Lindenblatt) and collaborator Dr. Mark Ridgeway (Harkness Laboratory of Fisheries Research, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) began a three year study to identify the timing of spawning bass in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. They published their paper, titled ‘Ecology and timing of black bass spawning in Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River: Potential interactions with the angling season” in the Journal of Great Lakes Research in 2019.
The authors found that largemouth bass spawning sites warmed more quickly than smallmouth sites. The majority of largemouth bass spawning nests had fry that reached the juvenile stage by the start of the angling season. However, only between 4-13% of the smallmouth nass nests had reached this stage by the same date. Thus, at the time, the current angling season occurred during the peak of the spawning period for smallmouth bass.
The researchers concluded that smallmouth bass require an additional two weeks for a sufficient number of their fry to reach the juvenile stage. If the angling season remained the same, smallmouth bass spawning nests would have continued to be targeted by anglers who are looking for trophy size bass. Intense angling of the smallmouth bass can leave them vulnerable to their top nest predator in these waterbodies, the invasive round goby.
The findings produced by Tufts et al. have led to multiple important regulation changes to the angling seasons for largemouth and smallmouth bass. While the opening date for largemouth bass remains the same, the angling season for smallmouth bass will now begin two weeks later on the first Saturday in July, providing this species with ample time to successfully spawn. A better understanding of the timing of bass spawning in these waters also led to the creation of a new “catch and release” season for both bass species. This season takes place before the start of the spawning period for either species and will begin at the start of the new year, and last until May 10th. These changes, which will come into effect for the first time this year, are a great example of the importance of scientific research for the management of fisheries resources.
ARE CURRENT WATERCRAFT DECONTAMINATION MEASURES EFFECTIVE AGAINST AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES?
Aquatic invasive species pose a major threat to all bodies of water, and the natural diversity that live in these ecosystems. Human activity is an important contributor to the spread of aquatic invasive species, often due to the improper cleaning of equipment/watercrafts that move between bodies of water.
In a recently published review, Queen's Biology MSc Candidate Shrisha Mohit, Professor Dr. Shelley Arnott, and Dr. Timothy Johnson (Aquatic Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry) examined studies that evaluated the effectiveness of decontamination measures (rinsing watercrafts with hot water, pressure-washing, and air-drying) for preventing the spread of aquatic invasive species.
Mohit et al. determined that all three decontamination measures can be effective; however, the effectiveness of the treatment depended on which aquatic invasive species were involved. Regardless of species, washing with hot water was more effective than air-drying, even though most studies test air-drying methods. Although washing with hot water seems to be very effective compared to air-drying, there was still a lot of variation in the test conditions and techniques among the studies assessing these two measures of decontamination. The authors conclude that there is presently no consensus on which decontamination methods and conditions have both the best efficacy against a diversity of species and is also easy for recreational boaters to implement.
To learn more, read their article in Management of Biological Invasions.
Figure caption: A group of invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), which are frequently dispersed into waterbodies by attaching to the surface of watercrafts, at Queen’s University Biological Station, Elgin, ON. Photo by S. Mohit.
THE EFFECTS OF WEATHER ON AVIAN GROWTH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is expected to cause plastic responses and evolutionary change across all taxa. For many bird species, climate change will alter weather patterns (such as temperature, rainfall, and wind), that will likely impact how young birds grow.
In a recent review, Queen's Biology PhD Candidate Drew Sauve, Professor Dr. Vicki Friesen, and Dr. Anne Charmantier (Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France) sought to characterize how current weather variation affects the growth of birds to predict future changes in nestling growth under climate change. In their review, they concluded that most weather variables can improve and worsen nestling growth, and how weather impacts growth likely depends on the life-history and geographic location of a species. Further, they determined that it is generally unknown how nestling growth might evolve in response to climate change.
Ultimately, understanding how nestlings are affected by weather conditions could help us predict the effects of climate change on future bird populations' stability. To learn more, read their article in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
A nestling black-legged kittiwake and one of its parents on Middleton Island, Alaska. Photo by: Hannah Weipert
SPECIES-SPECIFIC CONSERVATION STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GRAY RATSNAKE ROAD MORTALITY
Worldwide, biodiversity is declining as anthropogenic disturbance increases. A major threat to mammal, reptile, amphibian, and bird survival is road traffic. Many strategies to mitigate the effects of road traffic have been proposed; however, these are typically designed for large mammals, and are not suitable for all affected taxa.
In a recent study, former Queen’s Biology MSc student Mathew Macpherson, Queen’s Biology Professor Dr. Stephen Lougheed, and collaborators evaluate the effectiveness of different designs and materials used in barrier fencing that act to mitigate gray ratsnake (Pantherophis spiloides) road mortality at the Queen’s University Biological Station. Gray ratsnake is designated a species-at-risk in Canada, with road mortality contributing to their declines.
Macpherson et al. find that fencing material, height, and shape all contribute to variation in ratsnake climbing success. The most effective barrier design was the 100 cm metal mesh fencing with a lip, which prevented the escape of ratsnakes in 93% of trials. The researchers’ work is an excellent example of using behavioural and morphological attributes of at-risk species to determine suitable conservation strategies. To learn more, read their article in Global Ecology and Conservation.
This research is co-authored by Jacqueline Litzgus (Laurentian University), and Patrick Weatherhead (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).
A gray ratsnake successfully climbing over one-meter vinyl fencing with a lip. Photo by M. Macpherson.
IDENTIFICATION OF UBIQUITINATION SITES ON MEMBRANE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN ARABIDOPSIS
Protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination are two of the most commonly studied post-translational modifications of proteins in eukaryotes. While previous studies have recorded several ubiquitinated proteins in plants, few ubiquitinated membrane-localized proteins have been identified.
In a recent study, Queen’s Biology Assistant Professor Dr. Jacqueline Monaghan, former Queen’s Biology MSc students Katherine Dunning and Lauren Grubb, and collaborators, describe the large-scale identification of ubiquitination sites on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins associated with or integral to the plasma membrane, including over 100 protein kinases.
The researchers’ work is an important contribution to plant molecular biology, cataloguing hundreds of in vivoubiquitination sites on plasma membrane proteins. To learn more, read their article in Plant Physiology.
This research is co-authored by Paul Derbyshire, Cyril Zipfel, and Frank L.H. Menke (University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom).
BIK1 (a receptor-like protein kinase) is ubiquitinated on multiple surface-exposed lysines in vivo.
INVESTIGATING TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN PLANT-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSES
As the global demand for food production rises, a deep understanding of our crops – and their microbiomes – becomes essential. A plant’s microbiome includes a diverse suite of microbial species that are crucial in maintaining plant health through improved plant nutrition and function, pest tolerance, and even responses to changing climate.
Rhizobia-legume symbioses are ecologically and agronomically important. Rhizobia are a group of soil bacteria that fix nitrogen for plants. In nature, the association of rhizobial strains and host plants are highly variable, even within the same species. Because of this, the genetic makeup required for efficient rhizobia-legume associations is still poorly understood.
In a recent study, Queen’s Biology Assistant Professor Dr. George diCenzo and PhD Candidate Rui Huang, with collaborators from the University of Florence (Florence, Italy), used RNA sequencing to determine the RNA transcripts of multiple rhizobial strains in the presence of root secreted compounds produced by three alfalfa varieties.
Results from this study demonstrated that transcriptional responses of rhizobia associated with alfalfa are influenced by the genotypes of both symbiotic partners and their interaction, suggesting high variability in the genetic determinants involved in phenotypic variation of plant-rhizobium symbiosis. The researchers’ work provides genetic insights into natural rhizobium variation that could potentially improve legume growth in agricultural systems. To learn more, read their article in mSystems, published by the American Society for Microbiology.
This research is co-authored by Camilla Fagorzi, Giovanni Bacci, Lisa Cangioli, Alice Checcucci, Margherita Fini, Elena Perrin, Chiara Natali, and Alessio Mengoni.
Rhizobium – legume symbioses. (Left) This photo shows 28-day old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants grown in a vermiculite – sand mixture with a nutrient solution lacking nitrogen. The pots on the left contain the rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti, whereas the plants on the right did not. The drastic difference in growth provides a nice visual depiction of the value of the symbiosis to the plant. (Top right) A picture of the roots of alfalfa, showing pink nodules, which are the plant organs that house rhizobia. The tips of the nodules appear white, as this region represents a different developmental zone than the pink section of the nodules. (Bottom right) A confocal microscopy image of a nodule containing nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The image is centered on a single plant cell from the nodule that is packed full of rhizobia (the green, elongated structures).
SEABIRD POPULATION DECLINE FOLLOWING EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT
Seabirds are important indicators of marine ecosystem health, and yet, we often lack long-term population data to inform conservation decisions. With ~70% of the world’s seabird populations in decline since the 1950s, long-term population data become vital to understand the extent of loss.
The Leach's Storm-petrel (Hydrobates leucorhous) is the most common seabird nesting on islands in the Western Atlantic Ocean. Globally, available surveying data indicate that the storm-petrel populations are vulnerable and have declined by over 30% since the 1980s. Unfortunately, due to a lack of long-term data, it is difficult to establish the true scope of declines. Interestingly, one storm-petrel colony on Grand Colombier Island (~17 km southwest of Newfoundland), was believed to be relatively stable based on the limited available monitoring.
In a recent study, members of the Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL, Queen’s University Biology; PhD Candidate Mathew Duda, Professor Dr. John Smol) and collaborators used paleoecological evidence (lake sediments and seabird guano) to reconstruct the last ~5,800 years of storm-petrel population dynamics from Grand Colombier Island, and aimed to investigate if the colony appeared to be stable over longer time periods.
Duda et al. found that this globally important seabird colony is now only ~16% of its potential carrying capacity, and that the beginning of the decline coincided with nearby European settlement. The researchers’ work provides a unique historical context for present day populations of conservation concern, and contributes to mounting evidence for the historical impacts of humans on marine ecosystems. To learn more, read their article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America.
This research is co-authored by Sylvie Allen-Mahé, Christophe Barbraud, Jules Blais, Amaël Boudreau, Rachel Bryant, Karine Delord, Christopher Grooms, Linda Kimpe, Bruno Letournel, Joeline Lim, Hervé Lormée, Neal Michelutti, Gregory Robertson, Frank Urtizbéréa, and Sabina Wilhelm.
The storm-petrel impacted study pond on Grand Colombier Island. Photo by K Delord.
FUNCTIONAL SHIFTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES CONTRIBUTE TO INVASION SUCCESS
Invasive plants can have devastating effects on native species and ecosystem processes. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is a problematic invader in North American deciduous forests. It produces chemicals that are thought to be allelopathic by disrupting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are important symbionts in the microbiomes of competing plants. However, the effect of garlic mustard chemicals on soil pathogens has received little attention, even though accumulating pathogens that are harmful to plant competitors could also explain the success of garlic mustard.
In a recent study, members of the Colautti lab (former MSc student Katherine Duchesneau, former BSc thesis student Anneke Golemeic, Dr. Rob Colautti), and Dr. Pedro Antunes (Algoma University Biology) use a natural, field setting to examine differences in the soil microbiome and roots of plants found co-occurring with and without garlic mustard.
Contrary to experimental studies, the authors find no changes in diversity or abundance of AMF in plants growing with garlic mustard, indicating that AMF suppression is not critical to the invasion success of garlic mustard. Instead, they find changes in microbial pathogen communities and slight increases in the root lesions of plants associated with garlic mustard. Additionally, the authors report changes in microbial communities cycling nitrogen, in line with earlier reports of increased nitrogen in soils from garlic mustard litter.
Their study is one of the first to investigate garlic mustard invasion in a natural setting and provides new insights into the ecological mechanisms of plant invasion. To learn more, read their article in the Pedobiologia.
Plants that grow with garlic mustard do not have altered AMF/EMF communities. However, they do exhibit differences in pathogen communities, increases in root lesions, and increases in microbial communities cycling nitrogen.
Celebrating Our Women Mentors
Queen’s Biology thanks our women mentors who are so instrumental to our development as scientists. Women mentors shape our scientific careers. They inspire us to pursue careers in biology, ensure we are confident and comfortable with whatever tasks we take on, foster a positive and supportive environment, help develop our research skills, go above and beyond for their students, and have long-lasting impacts on us.
Check out our video, where we thank and highlight some of the many women mentors the Queen’s Biology community has had the pleasure of knowing and being mentored by throughout our careers and lives.
DENSE SAMPLING OF BIRD DIVERSITY INCREASES POWER OF COMPARATIVE GENOMICS
More than 10,000 species of birds are alive today, from the smallest hummingbird to the largest ostrich. Researchers have now captured a broad sampling of genomic information from across the avian tree of life.
“Dense sampling of bird diversity increases power of comparative genomics”, published this month in Nature, reports on a large collaborative effort that includes members of the Friesen lab (Queen’s University Biology Department): Professor Dr. Vicki Friesen, and former PhD students Dr. Anna Tigano and Dr. Scott Taylor.
The main findings of this paper include the reporting on the genomes from 363 species of bird (encompassing 92.4% of bird families), 267 of which have been sequenced for the first time. This data has been produced for the Bird 10,000 Genomes (B10K) Project, which aims to sequence the genomes of all extant bird species, and is used to generate a super-phylogeny for the class Aves.
This collaboration and data collection have created an incredible publicly available genomic resource. Results will facilitate many future studies in evolution, ecology and molecular genetics, from evolutionary relationships among avian families, through the genomic basis of adaptations, to mechanisms of molecular evolution. Results will also aid conservation, for example by clarifying the relationships among species and providing baseline information for population-level sequencing.
All 10,135 bird species are shown on this phylogeny, purple branches represent the 363 species that now have at least one genomic assembly per sequenced family.
RANGE-EDGE PLANT POPULATIONS OF HIGH CONSERVATION PRIORITY LACK ADEQUATE HABITAT PROTECTION AND RESEARCH EFFORT
Southern Canada is home to many plants at the northern limits of their geographic ranges. These species are often rare and at-risk in Canada, though more broadly distributed south of the US border. While the conservation value of these peripheral populations is controversial, the ability of species to move to higher elevations and latitudes may be crucial for responding to climate warming and these peripheral populations may be particularly important for range movements. In a recently published paper, members of Chris Eckert’s lab (Queen’s University; Chris Eckert, Raeya Jackiw) and Anna Hargreaves’ lab (McGill University; Anna Hargreaves, Pascale Caissy, Sandra Klemet-N’Guessan) investigate conservation efforts and risk, as well as the distribution patterns of plants at their northernmost range limit in Canada. They ask if Canadian conservation prioritizes range-edge populations, and if conservation priorities are matched by habitat protection and research effort.
Caissy et al. find that most federally protected plants in Canada occur only at the northernmost limit of their range, and current habitat protection and research effort is inadequate for these species. The authors conclude that “…plant conservation in Canada is fundamentally linked to conserving range-edge populations, yet edge populations themselves are understudied, a research gap we must close to improve evidence-based conservation.”.
To learn more, read their article in Biological Conservation.
WHAT CAUSES HABITAT PARTITIONING IN URBAN-ADAPTED BIRDS?
How important is plasticity versus evolutionary divergence for habitat partitioning in nature? In a recently published paper, Queen’s Biology Associate Professors Fran Bonier and Paul Martin, and former Queen’s Biology MSc student Kevin Burke use a global dataset on urban birds to provide one of the few tests of the relative importance of plasticity versus evolutionary divergence underlying habitat partitioning. They find evidence for both. Greater habitat partitioning was associated with increased range overlap among dominant and subordinate species – a factor that is expected to increase the intensity of selection favoring evolutionary divergence. For birds that thrive in cities, however, the greatest impact on habitat partitioning appears to result from subordinates actively shifting out of cities when dominant species occur there, consistent with plasticity in response to aggressive, dominant species.
The study results suggest distinct ways to mitigate loss of biodiversity caused by urbanization. When dominant species thrive in cities, providing resources for subordinates that cannot be monopolized by the dominant (e.g., nest boxes with entrance holes too small for the dominant species to use) would help subordinates to persist. In the case of evolutionary divergence, adding distinct habitat refuges suited to subordinate species could help them colonize or persist in cities.
Overall, this global study provides new insight into the importance of two distinct processes that shape patterns of diversity in an urbanizing landscape.
For more, check out the paper in The American Naturalist.
A European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, one of the focal species in a global comparative study of habitat partitioning among urban-adapted birds. (Credit: Paul Martin)
Congratulations to the recipient of the 2020 Ragai Ibrahim Award
The Ragai Ibrahim award is for the best publication by a Can Soc Plant Biol student member that appeared over the previous year. The paper that Mina won the award for is based upon some of her PhD thesis research: Ghahremani M, Tran H, Biglou SG, O'Gallagher B, She Y-M, Plaxton WC (2019) A glycoform of the purple acid phosphatase AtPAP26 co-purifies with a mannose-binding lectin (AtGAL1) secreted by phosphate starved Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environment 42:1139–1157.
Black Lives Matter
The faculty, staff and students from the Department of Biology strongly condemn anti-Black violence and systematic racism against the Black, Indigenous, and People of Colour (BIPOC). The current COVID-19 pandemic has amplified the inequities in our society. We recognize that in the past Queen’s University has been complicit in perpetuating anti-Black racism (www.queensu.ca/inclusive/initiatives/picrdi). We reaffirm our commitment to anti-racism; we must and will do better.
Our university, faculty and department have much work to do to improve the climate for BIPOC LGBTQ2S students, and all of us need to work together to make a more just society, as well as a more equitable and inclusive university environment. Some initiatives are ongoing both at the faculty level (e.g., https://www.queensu.ca/artsci/node/1255) and in the department (https://biology.queensu.ca/resources/equity-diversity-and-inclusion-committee/) but much more need to be done. We encourage our faculty, staff and students to use their voices to address issues of equity and inclusion, and to initiate and support initiatives to better educate and help address racism in all of its forms. We will continue work with all levels at Queen’s to develop and support initiatives, and continue to listen to our colleagues and students to identify areas of action that will make a difference. We are open to input and criticism, but most importantly appreciate constructive ideas to move forward.
We welcome an open and constructive dialog in the department, but if you have specific ideas please send them to Brian Cumming and Shelley Arnott (Chair, EDI Committee, Biology)
Congratulations to the Biology Class of 2020
On Wednesday, June 3 of 2020, our graduating class of 223 students in Bachelors (Biology, Biology-Mathematics, Biology-Psychology, Biotechnology), Masters or PhDs degrees would be walking the stage in Grant Hall for their convocation ceremony. Unfortunately, this year a graduation ceremony was not possible, so our faculty made a special video tribute to them. Congratulations Class of 2020 from all of the faculty, staff and current graduate students in the Department of Biology. We are proud of you. We look forward to offering you a traditional ceremony in the future.
Doctor of Philosophy
- Cécilia Barouillet, Biology, Supervisors: B.F. Cumming, D. Selbie
- Qian Gu, Biology, Supervisor: P. Grogan
Master of Science
- Nagla Arab, Biology, Supervisors: P.G. Young, M.T. Greenwood
- Ying Chen, Biology, Supervisor: S.C. Lougheed
- Hannah Grace Driver, Biology, Supervisor: S.C. Lougheed
- Danielle Alanna Greco, Biology, Supervisors: S.E. Arnott, B.S. Schamp
- Joeline Lim, Biology, Supervisor: J.P. Smol
- Alexandra Claire McClymont, Biology, Supervisor: S.E. Arnott
- Joseph Quagraine, Biology, Supervisor: S.M. Regan
- Rachel Anne Van Dusen, Biology, Supervisor: R.M. Robertson
- Alyson Van Natto, Biology, Supervisor: C.G. Eckert
- Kurtis McKay Westbury, Biology, Supervisor: W.A. Nelson, C.D. Moyes
Bachelors - Biology
- Aghaeeaval, Mahsa, Major in Biology
- Ahac, Danika, Major in Biology
- Aksu,Sera Tamar, General in Biology
- Al Hadeethi,Mariam, General in Biology
- Allan, Christina, Major in Biology
- Aman, Danielle, Major in Biology
- Anderson, Macy Janelle, Major in Biology, Science Minor in Life Sciences
- Arhen, Benjamin Baseda Asamoah, Major in Biology
- Armour, Amy Maureen, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Armstrong, Alyssa Anne, Major in Biology
- Asselstine, Isabella, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in World Language Studies with Distinction
- Babcock, Taylor Alexis, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology
- Balasubramaniam,Kapillesh, Major in Biology
- Ben Or,Neta, Major in Biology
- Bierd,Mitchell, Major in Biology
- Boden,Ainsley Roberts, Major in Biology
- Bonifacio-Proietto, Francesco Luca, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Geography with Distinction
- Bosorogan, Andreea Artemiza, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Broda,Olivia, Major in Biology
- Burchat,Caroline Elizabeth, Major in Biology
- Cameron,Emma, Major in Biology
- Campbell,Jillian Nicole, Major in Biology
- Chaput,Natalie Hanne, Major in Biology
- Choi,Nandaraye Carissa Yan-Yan, Major in Biologyy
- Conrad,Jillian, Major in Biology
- Cooke,Jennifer Elizabeth, Major in Biology
- Cournoyea,Olivia Grace, Major in Biology
- Crivello,Emma Antonella, Major in Biology
- Curran,Quinn Lucy, Major in Biology
- Delfim,Daniel Soares, General in Biology
- Deng,Weiran, Major in Biology
- Elia,Francesca, Major in Biology
- Elliott,Emily Anna, Major in Biology
- Emmott,Angeline, Major in Biology
- Ewing,Meghan, Major in Biology, Science Minor in Geological Sciences
- Fedus,Amber Lynne, Major in Biology
- Flewwelling,Luke De Luisa, Major in Biology
- Filipopoulos,Jonathan, General in Biology
- Freeman,Kadie Anne, General in Biology
- Fullerton,Eric James Fraser, General in Biology
- Gaete,Kayla-Kay, Major in Biology
- Goetz,Dylan, Major in Biology
- Gorodetsky,David, General in Biology
- Grandal,Nestor Al, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology
- Green, Hailey Alexandra, Major in Biology
- Guidice, Amber Jade, Major in Biology
- Gunasinghe, Tasha Nihani, Major in Biology
- Hamburger, Eleane Chana Bertl, Major in Biology
- Han, Lisa, Major in Biology
- Hann, Michael Emil, Major in Biology
- Hansen, Rachel Jade, Major in Biology
- Harper, Alison Lindsay, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology
- Hemy,Sarah Renee, General in Biology
- Honess, Isabella, Major in Biology,with Distinction
- Howard, Kristina Grace, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Music
- Hunter, Lara, Major in Biology
- Jallow, Muhammed, Major in Biology
- Jay, Victoria, Major in Biology,Arts Minor in Spanish and Latin American Studies with Distinction
- Jia, Hao Ran, Major in Biology, Science Minor in Geological Sciences
- Johnson, Lauren Anne, Major in Biology
- Joiner,Liam, General in Biology
- KC, Nisha, Major in Biology
- Kielbasa, Allison Marie, Major in Biology
- Kim, Jenna, Major in Biology
- Kim, Yu Mi, Major in Biology
- Kok, Orhun Halil, Major in Biology
- Lafreniere, Logan Alexandra, Major in Biology
- Lam,Jessica Kimberly, Major in Biology
- Larson, Morgan, Major in Biology
- Leranbaum, Madeline Bea, Major in Biology
- Lindow, Cassandra Annika, Major in Biology
- Litwinczuk, Alicia Wendy, Major in Biology
- Macdonald, Mina, Major in Biology
- Macgillivary, Taylor Dawn, Major in Biology
- MacIntyre, Kaitlin, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in History
- Macmillan, Katherine Lynn, Major in Biology
- Macmillan, Margaret Evelyn, Major in Biology
- Manley, Kathryn Sandra, Major in Biology
- Marcellus, Mia Catherine, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Marck, Lindsey Nicole, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Marcuzzi, Sofia Nicole, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in French Studies with Distinction
- Marduhaev, Jonathan, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology
- Marshall, Matthew Grant, Major in Biology
- Marshall, Olivia Isobelle, Major in Biology
- Marshall,Patrick, General in Biology
- Marshall, Shannon Jane Elizabeth, Major in Biology
- Martel,Genevieve Aldora, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Health Studies
- Matharu,Tavleen, Major in Biology
- McCabe,Gabrielle Audrey Marianneke, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Morris,Andrea Nicole, Major in Biology
- Murray, Kathryn Grace, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Neapole, Caitlin, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Nella, Adriano Kristian, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Ng,Angie On Kei, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Art History
- Nowshir, Thalib, Major in Biology
- Ntim-Addae, Abena, Major in Biology
- Nystedt, Adrianna Elizabeth, Major in Biology
- Page,Austin David, Major in Biology
- Parida, Ayushee, Major in Biology
- Parmar, Harjit Kaur, Major in Biology
- Pellmann,Madison, Major in Biology
- Pennington,Jessica Lillian, Major in Biology
- Peterson,Nell, Major in Biology
- Piccone, Amelia, Major in Biology
- Plouffe, Sydney, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Pountney, Emily, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology with Distinction
- Premji,Jameel, Major in Biology
- Probizanski, Alexandra Diana, Major in Biology
- Pushpanathan,Raaghavi, General in Biology
- Puskas, Jacob, Major in Biology
- Raud, Silvi, Major in Biology
- Rees,Rhiannon Albertina, Major in Biology
- Robertson, Allison Nicole, Major in Biology
- Robertson, Krista Jan, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Robinson, Chloe Elizabeth, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Rondeau,Carole Elizabeth, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology
- Rooth,Tye Robert, Major in Biology
- Roy, Prama, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Rozon, Charlotte Grace, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Environmental Studies with Distinction
- Rudiak, Alexandra Karina, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Sawula, Danielle Kathryn Louisa, Major in Biology
- Sears,Samantha Bronwyn, Major in Biology
- Severino,Sabrina, Major in Biology
- Silverthorn, Megan Riley, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Simpson,Zahra, Major in Biology
- Smith,Jaedyn, Major in Biology, Science Minor in Geological Sciences with Distinction
- Smith,Kyra Nancie, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Snider,Taylor Doris, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in History
- So,Hoi Yee, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Classical Studies
- So,Jeffrey Philip, Major in Biology
- Summers,Alyson Marie, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Religious Studies
- Sutharsan,Lashaanii Lancey, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Gender Studies
- Tanney,Cailun Ann Simone, With Professional Internship, Major in Biology
- Taylor,Summer Dyment, Major in Biology
- Utom, Hannah Hazel Fudalan, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Vakeeswaran,Vruksha Karen, Major in Biology
- Van Stiphout,Cassidy, Major in Biology
- Velichka, Jenni, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Environmental Studies with Distinction
- Walker,Emma Jane Lougheed, Major in Biology, with Distinction
- Walker,Kathleen, Major in Biology
- Ward,Samantha Victoria, Major in Biology, Arts Minor in Psychology
- Waters,Kathryn Jeanne, Major in Biology
- Watts,Aimee, Major in Biology
- Ye,April, Major in Biology
- Yueh,Henry, Major in Biology
Biology - Mathematics
- Allan, Gillian Mary Mckenzie, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics, with Distinction
- Caklec, Jaycelyn Cori, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics
- Darragh, Christine Nicole, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics
- Edie, Shannon, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics, with Distinction
- Liu, Yuan, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics
- Main, Sasha, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics, with Distinction
- Perkins, Cameron Thomas, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics
- Smith, Claire Alexandra Hass, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics, with Distinction
- Stanton, Laura Faye, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics
- Sun, Yi, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics
- Tittel, Matthew Jared, Specialization in Biology - Mathematics, with Distinction
- Ahmed, Zaryab, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Ashcroft, Catherine Cecile, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Axelson, Jennifer Emma, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Bourne,Emily, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Boverhof,James Orion, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Brockie,Sydney Tyner Grace, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Chandran, Devante, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Cowper, Elinor Catherine Dysart, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Cox, Christopher Raymond, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Elman-Walker, Ariel, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Falzon, Mariah,S Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Hadlaw, Alexandra, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Ingratta, Laine Elizabeth, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Keyes, Emily, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Kovacs, Aaron, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Lee, Karen Huafang, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Lehan, Mikela Margaret, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Livingston, Eliza, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Lum Smith,Hannah, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- McGee,Sarah Caitlin, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Miller, Zoe Amelia, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Morris, Alanna, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Murray, Kiyomi Irene, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Ross, Hannah Claire, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Rutherford, Annabel, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Sadoon, Farah Yasmin, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Samarawickrema,Kushan, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Simone,Genevieve, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Stone, Erica Rachel, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Teitelbaum,Emma,Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Toth,Kaelin Mckenna, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Weinryb,Sydney Nicole, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Welikala,Tarindi Navodya, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Wilson,Siobhan Mackenzie, Specialization in Biology - Psychology, with Distinction
- Wulfsohn,Hannah, Specialization in Biology - Psychology
- Bekking,Clare, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Camara, Bettina, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Chevtchouk,Michelle, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Cohen,Ethan, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Ellis,Kai Howson, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Ewen,Kelsey, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Ghojeh Biglou,Sanaz, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Hardikar,Navneetha Sharath, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Lai,Zoe Pui Lun, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Lamoureux,Kathryn Elise, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Low,Mun Seong, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Nowlan,Ferris, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Omar,Kinzy Ali, Specialization in Biotechnology
- Raytek,Lee Marie, Specialization in Biotechnology, with Distinction
- Zaza,Yossra Khaled, Specialization in Biotechnology
Why do endocrine traits vary within a population?
If changes in circulating hormones regulate animals’ responses to their environments, then why do individuals that live together differ in their endocrine phenotypes? In a recently published paper, Queen’s Biology Associate Professor Fran Bonier and coauthor Dr. Bob Cox of the Department of Biology at the University of Virginia develop two hypotheses, suggesting that variation in endocrine traits within a population can occur because each individual expresses its own context-dependent optimal phenotype, or because some individuals' phenotypes reflect constraint or maladaptation and natural selection on these traits is ongoing. To test the first of these hypotheses, they conducted a meta-analysis of field experiments to see whether hormone manipulations move animals away from their optimal endocrine phenotypes. From Fran, “Overall, hormone manipulations generally reduce fitness, suggesting individuals do express optimal endocrine phenotypes. However, some of the variation from this average effect was equally interesting, and points to sex-specific differences in the ways that hormones regulate life history.” For more, check out the paper in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.
Visit the Bonier lab website to learn more about Fran’s work.
Characterizing the Holocene climate of Northeastern Ontario
Despite its susceptibility to human-induced climate change, past conditions of the boreal forest region of Canada are not fully understood. Changes that occurred during the Holocene Thermal Maximum are of particular interest, as this previous period of enhanced warming may help us to forecast how present day climate warming may affect the region. Recent Queen’s Biology graduate Brett Elmslie and current Queen’s Biology PhD Candidate Cale Gushulak work to better understand the conditions of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in the boreal forest region of Northeastern Ontario using fossilized pollen, diatoms, and sedimentary pigments to characterize changes that occurred in Charland Lake. From Cale, “The results of this work are very interesting as they show the importance that the landscape has on the sedimentary record in lake systems.” To learn more, read their article in The Holocene.
In addition to Brett and Cale, this paper was authored by Maxime P. Boreux of the Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory and the Department of Geography and Planning at Queen’s University, Scott Lamoreux of the Queen’s University Department of Geography and Planning, Peter R. Leavitt of the Institute of Environmental Change and Society at the University of Regina and the Institute for Global Food Security at Queen’s University Belfast, and Brian F. Cumming of the Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory at Queen’s University. This work was part of Brett Elmslie’s MSc work and Cale Gushulak’s PhD work in the Cumming Lab in the Queen’s Biology Department.
A family of protein kinases key to plant immune signaling
The ability to guard against disease-causing pathogens is essential for plants living in microbe-rich environments. Learning about what signalling pathways are involved in the detection of these stressors is key to understanding plant immune responses. In a recently published review, Queen’s Biology Postdoctoral Fellow Melissa Bredow and Assistant Professor of Plant Biology Jacqueline Monaghan contribute to this goal, detailing the role that calcium-dependent protein kinases play in the regulation of plant immune signalling. To learn more, read the review in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions.
This publication is part of Melissa Bredow&a
- Congratulations to the Biology Class of 2021
Congratulations to the Biology Class of 2021
I've spent more time than many will believe [making microscopic observations], but I've done them with joy, and I've taken no notice those who have said why take so much trouble and what good is it?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
It's a parts list... If I gave you the parts list for the Boeing 777 and it had 100,000 parts, I don't think you could screw it together and you certainly wouldn't understand why it flew
What is true for E. coli is also true for the elephant
The world becomes full of organisms that have what it takes to become ancestors. That, in a sentence, is Darwinism
Shall we conjecture that one and the same kind of living filaments is and has been the cause of all organic life?
Nature proceeds little by little from things lifeless to animal life in such a way that it's impossible to determine the line of demarcation
Cells let us walk, talk, think, make love, and realize the bath water is cold
Lorraine Lee Cudmore
In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history
It is my belief that the basic knowledge that we're providing to the world will have a profound impact on the human condition and the treatments for disease and our view of our place on the biological continuum
J. Craig Venter
Imagine a house coming together spontaneously from all the information contained in the bricks: that is how animal bodies are made
A grain in the balance will determine which individual shall live and which shall die - which variety or species shall increase in number, and which shall decrease, or finally become extinct
The stuff of life turned out to be not a quivering, glowing, wondrous gel but a contraption of tiny jigs, springs, hinges, rods, sheets, magnets, zippers, and trapdoors, assembled by a data tape whose information is copied, downloaded and scanned
We wish to discuss a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid. (D.N.A.). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biologic interest
We are biology. We are reminded of this at the beginning and the end, at birth and at death. In between we do what we can to forget
The systems approach to biology will be the dominant theme in medicine
I've always been interested in animal behavior, and I keep reading about it because it's so surprising all the time - so many things are happening around us that we neglect to look at. Part of the passion I have for biology is based on this wonderment"
Because all of biology is connected, one can often make a breakthrough with an organism that exaggerates a particular phenomenon, and later explore the generality
Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution
Biology is now bigger than physics, as measured by the size of budgets, by the size of the workforce, or by the output of major discoveries; and biology is likely to remain the biggest part of science through the twenty-first century
- Freeman Dyson
Nothing can be more incorrect than the assumption one sometimes meets with, that physics has one method, chemistry another, and biology a third